Biomass
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Dear Honourable Prime Minister,

I appreciate your prompt reply on my proposal regarding greenhouse effect reduction. I have written several proposals on city farmland recovery, public transit, household emission, and hi-tech garbage, etc., which you can read again on the website http://education.hitechemall.com/environ/index.html.

My proposal had been forwarded to the Minister of Natural Resources, and the Minister of Agriculture, the Minister of Transportation, and the Minister of the Environment. In the replies that I have received from them, I can see they had carefully read my proposal and understand the concept. The replies seemed systematic, which reflects avoiding conflicts of portfolio.

I understand that under certain circumstances, it involves several levels of government, and corporation interests. Fighting greenhouse effect is not the work of a single ministry; it needs the coordination of every ministry and every citizen’s voluntary co-operation. It also needs sophisticated planning, to avoid conflict of interest. Another most important point is to educate every citizen on environmental concern.  

The initial launch of the project requires federal government’s promotion. For example, the proposal below, “Biomass energy”, needs the co-ordination of citizens, farms, corporations, cities, counties, provincial, and federal governments.  

Therefore, I suggest to our government, to form a committee to perform the co-ordination work. This committee should not have real power to implement law. Its function is just to arrange meetings with citizens, corporations, and with the three levels of governments to hear public opinion. Reports will be submitted to parliament for further discussion. Final decision will be subject to mutual agreement based the benefits incurred by the corporations. I estimate this job could take ten years to complete. This committee will be dissolved when the objective has been attained. 

We thank you for your good work for Canada, God bless you.           

Yours sincerely
        Michael Tung

Biomass energy, the fossil fuel alternative.

Energy is crucial for modern society. The last century mining of fossil fuel caused releasing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to a degree that has caused adverse effect to the planet. The sudden releasing of green house effect gases within last hundred years, which was accumulated for million years, could destroy the earth if we do not stop it in time. The ignorant, greedy and selfishness of people requires intelligent government to correct them.

Biomass Energy is a simple alternative to replace the use of fossil fuel. The Earth receive energy from sun through photosynthesis is 50 billion tons per year. This is an unlimited resource of energy, which we could draw through biomass. The raw materials, such as animal or human feces, crop residue, foliage, food waste, paper, and garbage are so abundant in the world, which there is good potential for eliminating the need for fossil energy. Any biodegradable material will eventually disintegrated into carbon dioxide. This process will also cause green house effect organically. This is a natural phenomenon, which we cannot prevent. But there is a wise choice that we can utilize this natural energy before releasing it into the atmosphere. Fermentation of organic matter under oxygen free environment could produce natural gas. If we could cleverly use this alternative energy, we could eventually keep the world environment into equilibrium.

Biogas is the same type of gas generate naturally in the marshland. If you ever been a swamp, you would notice once in a while a bubble pop up to the surface. Decaying plants under the water causes this phenomenon. Biogas trapped under earth crust is known as natural gas. People ignore the utilization of biogas because it is easier to tap on the earth crust than to manufacture it. In the eighties, several under developed countries such as India, China were interested in developing this resource. The initial design of biogas reactors was unsafe, and performed poorly. Many people abandoned the device because lack of knowledge to maintain it. These primitive designs could generate enough biogas for a family to cook dinner. This small amount of energy ignored by the western world is really a luxury to an under develop country.

By twenty first century, better design reactors has made biogas attractive to every farmers. Continues flow process made it simple to operate by just dumping animal feces daily into the reactor inlet can generate enough gas for home use, it could also generate highest quality fertilizer. An 8 cubic meter reactor can generate 400 cubic meter of gas per year, equivalent to 12 tank of natural gas, good enough for single-family use year round. The fuel generated could save 2 acres of trees, or 2.5 metric tonnes of firewood. 10 pig’s or 6 cattle’s feces could supply enough raw material to manufacture 27.3 metric tones of high quality fertilizer. A 300 cubic meter reactor can generate enough gas for 500 families use. Feces of 100 pigs are required. Chinese government realized this great potential has set up grant of 1000 dollars per installation. Farmers initially kicking civil servants out of their farms, when they promote the installation. These people latter rush back to apply installation when they found the benefits of the device on their neighbour’s installation.

These reactors were generally designed in such a way that feces were input at out door, and the fertilizers were extracted inside of green house for ease of application. The effluent is a pale yellow liquid, which could be applied directly to plants. Some farmers sell the produce grown with this organic fertilizer; five times the normal market price and still could outsell the produce grown with regular fertilizers. Another great feature of which politicians most interest is the hygiene of the village is improved. This biomass fertilizer is germ-free even though the input material is full of germs. The most common germ in cow dung is E.coli, which has made many Canadians remember the Walkerton Ontario case and the lettuce and spinach poison cases in California. The anaerobic digestion process kills all viruses, germs, insect eggs and seeds. The British agriculture department agrees that biomass fertilizer is compliant to prevent foot and mouth, bird flue, and all kind of diseases. Survey has shown that most cases of foot and mouth diseases came from farm do not have biogas reactor. Flies and many human diseases were impressively disappeared. Poor farmers no longer need to cut trees for cooking and keep warm. The forest is well preserved. Villages become rich and clean.

The biogas reactors promoted by China and India are mostly small scale good for farm use. It is estimated that the world in 2006 has 5.3 million biomass reactors. China occupied 92% of them. The growth rate is two million set per annum in China. On 17th Oct 2006, the province of Guangxi launched first 150KW generator. 11 reactors of 1000 cubic meter each supply the gas. It can generate 130 million watt hours of electricity per year. The city of Boluo in Guangdong of China had developed a city garbage biological treatment plant. Israel has built a medium large size reactor in Tel Aviv to handle city garbage. Israelite said the electricity they generate could drive the city subway system. Japan, England, Australia and Germany are doing research on making large-scale reactors to manage city garbage and sewage. San Francisco is piloting research by collecting dog poo. Experts believe this is a good solution to reduce landfill dumpsite. Ontario is delivering garbage and human waste to Michigan. Michigan citizens oppose this waste management contract. On relocating the human waste processing plant to New Market, Ontario, the nocuous smell bothers the neighbourhood. Law suite closed the door of this industry. It is expected Quebec processing plant could face the same fate. The smell of human waste to fertilizer pallet manufacturing is caused by vaporization into open space during drying process. The final product is not disease free. Biomass garbage and human waste treatment is very different from above mentioned process. Raw materials do not need temporary storage. It will be treated immediately once the delivery arrives. It is a clean, efficient, and productive method to make our city clean. The nocuous small are trapped in the reactor, which could not leak out. Each city should have at least several large-scale plants. Extensive utilization could make city garbage a resource rather than waste. A profit solution rather than headache.

Survey has shown biogas reactor is feasible to operate in Inner Mongolia with severe winter. Insulation is required during winter. The construction of biogas reactor is a low-tech technique. No matter the selection of material and engineering are very traditional. Hi-tech monitoring system could make production more efficient, but not absolutely necessary. Research papers are abundantly found on Internet. This technology is a rediscovery, which people had been ignored, especially a civilized culture would consider it as primitive technology, would keep feces away from a ten foot pole. The biogas generated could be supply directly to neighbourhood household use, or bottled for sell, or treated and deliver through pipeline. It could also be used to generate electricity. The surplus heat could be use to warm up reactors during winter to fasten reaction. Left over warm water could use to raise fish, or warm up green house.

Through proper management, we believe we could change the view of people. If we are planning to commit into environmental protection through biomass technology. There will be three levels of services, which we shall provide. They are small biogas reactors to be used in residential, medium size reactors for farm use, and large size reactors for city sewage and garbage treatment. Our promotion would work, but won’t get popular unless we get government support, such as giving out grant per installation as China did. We also need city contracts of managing waste. We request the Canadian government of all levels to realize the importance of this project, and could assist us by all means for the benefits of Canadians. We look forward to open discussion with all levels of government.

Reference material:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MBT_anaerobicdigesters.jpg
http://www.bfcnet.info/downloads/Second%20workshop/Weiland.pdf
http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80434e/80434E00.htm#Contents
http://2004.biogas.gov.cn/english/english.asp
http://www.stee.agri.gov.cn/nyst/gzdt/t20060424_599017.htm
http://www.biogas.com.cn/

http://www.ycwb.com/gb/content/2006-07/03/content_1157690.htm

 

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